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Programming Paradigms 2023: Coursework 2
1. Overview
The following files are all provided, they must be downloaded from Moodle:
Sample_java.zip // the sample Java code
Sample_haskell.hs // the sample Haskell code
Chinese Chess (Xiangqi) is a two-player strategy board game which represents a
battle between two armies (red and black). Similar to the Western Chess, the aim of
this game is to checkmate the opponent’s general(king) and win the game.
In this coursework, you will be given some code in both Java and Haskell which
partially implements moves in Chinese Chess. For this coursework you will need to
complete the code to complete tasks specifiied below for Java and Haskell. Please note
that total marks for coursework 2 are given out of 100.
Through this exercise, you will learn differences between coding in Java using OOP
and Haskell using Functional Programming. When you have finished this coursework,
you will be given an in-lecture Moodle quiz when you will be asked questions
contrasting coding styles in Java and Haskell.
The remainder of this coursework sheet is as follows:
• Section 2 below provides a simple description of the game. For more details,
please refer to its Wiki page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiangqi.
• Section 3 describes the Java sample code and tasks.
• Section 4 describes the Haskell sample code and tasks.
• Section 5 gives submission instructions along with penalties for late submssion
and information about acasdemic misconduct.
Ensure you read and understand all sections.
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2. Chinese Chess Description
The board of the game consists of 9 vertical and 10 horizontal lines. All the pieces are
placed at the intersections, as in the game Go.
Figure 1: An example of Chinese Chess Board
A river between the 5th and 6th horizontal lines divides the board into two areas, i.e.,
one area for each player. There is a special zone in each zone called “palace” which is
centred at the first to third and eighth to tenth horizontal lines of the board
respectively. Each palace consists of three points by three points, demarcated by two
diagonal lines connecting opposite corners and intersecting at the centre point (see
figure 2).
Figure 2: An example of “gong” in Chinese Chess
The pieces start in the position shown in Figure 1, and typically the red side will move
first. Each player in turn moves one piece from the point it occupies, to another point.
A piece can only be moved onto an empty point or a point occupied by an enemy
piece. In the latter case, the enemy piece will be captured and removed from the
board. The game ends when one player checkmates the other's general.
Each player controls 16 pieces of 7 types. Followings are a simple descriptions on how
these pieces could be moved on the Chinese Chess board.
• General: The general (or king) starts the game at the midpoint of the back edge,
within the palace. It may move one point orthogonally and cannot leave the
palace with only one exception. If the two generals face each other along the
same vertical line, i.e., there is no intervening piece in between, the general can
move along the vertical line to directly capture the enemy’s general.
• Advisor: The advisors (or guards) start on either side of the general. They move
one point diagonally and are not allowed to leave the palace (same as the
• Elephant: The Elephants are located next to the advisors and move two points
diagonally. In addition, the elephants cannot jump over intervening pieces. That
is, if there is a piece (no matter what color it is) located one point diagonally to
the elephant, then the elephant cannot move diagonally towards that direction.
Moreover, the elephants are not allowed to cross the river.
• Horse: The horses are located next to the Elephants. The horse moves one point
orthogonally and then one point diagonally away from its former position. Unlike
the knights in Western Chess, the horse can be blocked by a piece (no matter
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what color it is) located one point vertically or horizontally adjacent to it. For
example, in Figure 3, all the green lines are valid moves for the horse, while the
red lines indicate the moves of the horse are blocked by another piece.
Figure 3: An example of horse move
• Chariot: The chariots are placed at the corners of the board next to the horses.
They move any distance orthogonally, but cannot jump over intervening pieces.
The behaviour of chariots are identical to the rooks in the Western Chess.
• Cannon: Each player has two cannons, which start on the row behind the soldiers,
two points in front of the horses. Cannons move like chariots, i.e., any distance
orthogonally without jumping, but can only capture by jumping a single piece of
either color along the path of attack. There may be any number of unoccupied
spaces between the cannon, the piece over which the cannon jumps and the
piece to be captured. An example of how a cannon can capture enemy’s pieces
can be found in Figure 4.
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Figure 4: An example of cannon
• Soldier: Each player starts with 5 soldiers, which are located on every other point
one row back from the edge of the river. They move by advancing one point
forward. Once they have crossed the river, they can also move one point
horizontally. However, they can never move backwards.
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3. Jave Sample Code and Tasks
Java Sample Code
In the sample Java code, a Chinese Chess board is represented as a 2D array of
characters, i.e., char[9][10], where the element with index [0][0] represents the
top-left corner of the chess board. Different types of pieces and unoccupied positions
are represented as follows (we use uppercase alphabetic letters to represent red
pieces and lowercase letters for black pieces):
• G/g : General
• A/a : Advisor
• E/e : Elephant
• H/h : Horse
• R/r : Chariot
• C/c : Cannon
• S/s : Soldier
• . : unoccupied position
The sample Java code consists of three main parts: the chessboard, the pieces and the
moves. The chessboard for Chinese Chess is represented as a single Java class called
ChessBoard which contains all the data and methods that are associated with the game.
The followings are a summary of the data and methods declared in ChessBoard:
Data Description
int WIDTH An integer constant which represents the width of
the board, i.e., the number of vertical lines.
int HEIGHT An integer constant which represents the height of
the board, i.e., the number of horizontal lines.
char[][] board A two-dimensional array for character values which
represents the current state of the chess board.
ArrayList redPieces A list of red pieces.
ArrayList blackPieces A list of black pieces.
Method Description
Piece getPieceAt(int x, int y) Given the x-axis and y-axis values, return the piece at
the specified position.
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void findAllPieces() Find out all the pieces on the current chess board
and update the lists of red and black pieces.
boolean validPosition(int x,
int y)
Return true if the given position is within the
chessboard, false otherwise.
void printBoard() Output the current board to the console window
boolean unoccupied(int x1, int
x2, int y1, int y2)
Given the start position and end position of a vertical
or a horizontal line, and check if the line is
unoccupied, i.e., there is no piece located on the line.
This method works only when x1 == x2, i.e., a vertical
line is given, or when y1 == y2, i.e., a horizontal line is
boolean checkmate() Return true if the black player is checkmated, false
Piece in the sample Java code is an abstract class that implements the Moveable
interface, and it is the superclass of all the pieces in Chinese Chess. The followings are
a summary of the data and methods declared in Piece:
Data Description
int x The x-axis value of the current piece
int y The y-axis value of the current piece
boolean red True, if the piece is red; false, otherwise
Method Description
int getX() Return the x-axis value of the current piece
Int getY() Return the y-axis value of the current piece
boolean isRed() Return true if the current piece is red; false,
boolean riverCrossed() Return true, if the piece has already crossed the
river; false, otherwise.
boolean atPalace() Return true, if the piece is currently at its own palace
boolean sameColor() Return true if the given piece has the same color as
the current one.
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Move[] getMoves(ChessBoard
As all the pieces implement the Moveable
interface, the getMoves method must be
implemented in all the concrete Java classes that
represent different types of pieces. This method
takes a chess board as its input and returns all
possible moves in the given chess board.
Move in the sample Java code is an abstract class which is the superclass of all different
types of moves in Chinese Chess. The followings are a summary of the data and
methods declared in Move:
Data Description
int x The movement distance at x-axis.
int y The movement distance at y-axis.
Method Description
int getX() Return the movement distance at x-axis.
Int getY() Return the movement distance at y-axis.
boolean canMove(Piece p,
ChessBoard board)
Given a piece and a chess board, return true if the
current movement can be performed by the given
piece at the given chess board.
Void printMove() Output the current move to the console window.
Java Tasks
Given the sample code, you are asked to finish the following tasks in Java:
1. Write class definitions for different types of pieces in Chinese Chess, all of which
must be the subclass of Piece. Your class definitions need to override the Move[]
getMoves(ChessBoard board) method which returns a list of potential moves
for the current piece in the given chess board. The sample code has already
provided class definitions for Soldier, Charoit and Guard, OMove for the
orthogonal move and DMove for the diagonal move. Please complete the class
definition for Cannon, Horse, Elephant and General. Feel free to modify any of
the existing movements or to define new types of moves. However, all the new
movements must be inherited from the abstract class Move. [15 Marks]
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2. Complete the pre-defined method void findAllPieces() in ChessBoard, which
searches the current chess board (i.e., board), find out all the pieces exists in
the current board, and stored them in two separate Arraylist redPieces and
blackPieces. To compelete this task, you also need to write Java code for the
getPieceAt method, which return the piece at a specified location. [10 Marks]
3. Complete the boolean riverCrossed() method in Piece, which returns true if
the current piece has crossed the river. [5 Marks]
4. Complete the boolean atPalace() method in Piece, which returns true if the
piece is currently at its own palace. [5 Marks]
5. Complete the pre-defined method boolean checkmate() in ChessBoard.
Assuming it is now the black player’s turn, the checkmate method will return
true, if the black player is checkmated, i.e., no matter what moves the black
player will perform, the red player can surely win the game in its next round.
[15 Marks]
To test your code, you could rewrite the AssessedCW2.java file. There is an example
in the sample Java code, where the chessboard is read from a text file. You can also
customise your own test cases. Note, you are not allowed to use any additional Java
packages other than the ArrayList.
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4. Haskell Sample Code and Tasks
Haskell Sample Code
You will be given a Haskell sample file with some code to get you started. The file
contains the following data declarations that you need to use to complete the
Type and data declarations Description
data PieceType = General | Guard |
Elephant | Horse | Chariot |
Cannon | Soldier deriving
Represent a particular type of piece.
data PieceColour = Black | Red
deriving (Eq,Show)
Represent the two colours.
type Piece = (PieceColour,
A particular piece of a colour and type.
data BoardPosition = On Piece |
Empty deriving (Eq,Show)
A position on the chess board either has a piece
on it, or it is empty.
type Board = [[BoardPosition]] A chess board is represented as a list of list of
board positions. The inner list is one row of 9
positions, and the outer list is the 10 rows that
form the board.
type Pos = (Int,Int) Represent a position on the chess board as
(x,y): x indexes rows 0 to 9 from top to
bottom, and y indexes columns 0 to 8 from left to
type Move = (Pos, Pos) A move from one position to another.
type Path = [Pos] A path as a sequence of positions on the chess
The file contains several useful functions. As part of this coursework, it is your
responsibility to study these functions to determine how they work and how you
can use them. However, here are some descriptions of key functions.
Function Description
emptyBoard :: Board An empty chess board with no pieces.
startBoard :: Board Initial setting of pieces for Chinese chess.
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strBoard :: Board ->
Convert a board into String format for display. Use putStrLn to
display the board in ghci. It uses the same notation for pieces that
is used to represent pieces in the Java section. For example,
GHCI> putStrLn (strBoard startBoard)
baseMoves :: Board ->
Piece -> Pos -> [Pos]
Returns a list of all positions that a given piece can move on a
board from a given position, without considering whether the
move is valid, or even on the board. For example,
baseMoves startBoard (Black, General) (0,4)
pathMove :: PieceType
-> Move -> Path
Returns a path for a move, excluding the starting and end points.
This may be different according to piece type so this is also an
argument. For example,
pathMove Elephant ( (9,3), (7,5) )
checkMove :: Board ->
PieceType -> Move ->
Check if a particular move is valid. These are specific validity
conditions for each piece; e.g. General must remain in the Palace:
checkMove startBoard General ( (0,4), (1,4) )
validMoves :: Board ->
Pos -> [Pos]
Return a list of valid moves for the piece at a given position on a
chess board; e.g.
validMoves startBoard (0,0)
Note that in the sample file, the functions baseMoves and checkMove have only been
defined for the General, the Soldier and the Chariot. You will be asked to complete
for the other pieces as part of your coursework tasks.
Haskell Tasks
You can use any function from Haskell Prelude, but do not use any functions from
any other Haskell library. You may also use functions provided in the Haskell sample
file and functions you have written. Please note that to answer some of these
questions you may need to write your own auxiliary functions.
When you deliver your solution, please include the data and type declarations and
functions from the sample file and any other auxiliary functions you have written, so
that your Haskell script compiles when it is loaded into GHCi.
1. Write a function crossRiver :: Move -> Bool
that will return True if and only if a move given as an argument involves crossing
the river. For example, crossRiver ( (4,3), (5,3) ) should return True.
[5 marks]
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2. Write a function cannonJump :: Board -> Pos -> (Int,Int) -> [Pos]
to give the cannon jump-and-capture move from the given position in the direction
given in the third argument. If such a move exists return the position of the piece
taken in a list. If such a move does not exist then return an empty list []. Note
that a direction is one of the orthogonal directions (-1,0), (1,0), (0,-1) or (0,1).
For example, cannonJump startBoard (2,1) (1,0) will return [(9,1)], but
cannonJump startBoard (2,1) (0,-1) will return []. [5 marks]
3. Develop the functions baseMoves and checkMove further so that they work for all
possible chess pieces. You can do this by providing new function definitions with
patterns for each of the pieces, where required.
Once you have done this the function validMoves should then work for all pieces
too, but you should test that it does. [10 marks]
4. Write a function findGeneral :: Board -> PieceColour -> Pos
which finds the position of the General of the given colour. For example,
findGeneral startBoard Red
will return (9,4). [5 marks]
5. Write the function findAllPieces :: Board -> PieceColour -> [Pos]
which returns a list of the position of all pieces on the chess board of one colour;
findAllPieces startBoard Red
will return list of the starting positions of all red pieces. [10 marks]
6. Write the function canCapture :: Board -> PieceColour -> Pos -> [Pos]
which returns the list of positions of any pieces of colour given by the 2nd argument
that can capture the piece at the position given by the 3rd argument.
For example, canCapture startBoard Red (0,7) will return [(7,7)].
[5 marks]
7. Write the function checkmate :: Board -> PieceColour -> Bool
that returns True if and only if the general of the given colour is in checkmate on
the given chess board. For example,
checkmate startBoard Black
will return False (the game does not start in checkmate!). [10 marks]
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The Haskell sample contains several chessboards b4, b5, b6, b7 that you can use
to test your code. However, these are not exhaustive tests and it is strongly
recommended that you also construct your own test cases.
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5. Submission
You should submit two files, one achieve for Java files and one .hs file for your
Haskell code. The zip achieves should be named as:
should be replaced with your student ID number. For example, if
your student ID is 20411111, then your zip achieve should be named as
20411111_Java.zip and 20411111_Haskell.hs
For Java submission, you don’t need to include the AssessedCW2.java in your
submission, as a different file will be used for testing your code.
You should submit your solution via Moodle by the deadline, i.e.,
6pm, 4th May, 2023.
The following table illustrate the penalties that apply to this coursework.
Penalties Details Deduction
Late Submission If you submit your work after the deadline,
you will be penalized according to the
standard University penalty
5% absolute
deduction, per
Incorrect Filename If you submit your work with an incorrect
file name.
10% absolute
Incorrect File
If you submit your work with an incorrect
file format.
10% absolute
Code that does not
Your code must compile: in JDK version 8
or higher for Java and ghci version 7 or
higher fro haskell. Code that do not
compile could result in 0 marks.
0 marks for
Java or Haskell
code that does
not compile
Use of other
If you use technologies other than those
specified in the assignment brief.
50% absolute
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Academic Misconduct
You are reminded that, by submitting your work for assessment, you are declaring
that the work is your own. You were already introduced to the University’s policy on
academic misconduct. You should familiarise yourself with this policy. You should
be aware that the University takes plagiarism very seriously and that your work will
be checked for plagiarism. If you are found to have plagiarised, you will be subject
to the University’s disciplinary procedures.
During the introductory lecture, we provided advice on how to avoid plagiarism,
especially in programming-based assignments (such as this one). A summary is
provided below:
• You are allowed to discuss the coursework with your classmates. You are not
allowed to share your code or your specific approach for solving the task.
• You are allowed to use the Internet to search for information. You should not
copy and paste code directly from the Internet. You should include references
to any code or resources you have used in completing the assignment.
• You must take action to protect your work from others. Do not share your code
or computer with classmates, as this may lead to unexpected problems. If you
share a dormitory with other students in the same class, you should take steps
to protect your computer. For example, you could use a password to protect
your computer. You could also use a USB stick to transfer your work to another
computer. You should not use a cloud storage service to store your work.
• You should ask your teacher if you are uncertain as to whether or not you are
allowed to do something.
• According to the updated University policies, it is clearly stated that “it is
beyond reasonable doubt that AI constitutes academic offence”. Therefore, you
cannot use ChatGPT or any other AI tool to assist you to complete your own

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